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Electrolyte disturbances eg, hypokalemia , hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, anemia, and opportunistic secondary infections often develop in severely affected cats.
Anticipation of these possibilities, close monitoring, and prompt intervention can improve outcome. In addition to crystalloid infusion, transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma helps support plasma oncotic pressure and provides clotting factors to severely ill, hypoproteinemic kittens.
It also provides some anti-FPV antibodies. Whole blood is preferable for the occasional cat that is severely anemic.
Parenteral, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is indicated; however, nephrotoxic drugs eg, aminoglycosides must be avoided until dehydration has been fully corrected.
Because of the nephrotoxic potential of the gentamicin , urinary protein dipstick findings, sequential urine sediments, and serum SDMA or creatinine should be monitored.
There are single antibiotic agents, albeit more expensive, that are effective against the anaerobes and gram-negative aerobes that are the most important bacteria in feline panleukopenia.
These include third-generation cephalosporins eg, ceftiofur, cefotaxime and extended penicillins eg, piperacillin. Antiemetic therapy eg, maropitant, ondansetron or metoclopramide usually provides some relief and allows earlier enteral feeding of soft, easily digested food.
Maropitant is the first-choice anti-emetic. In severely affected cats it can be combined with ondansetron. Feeding little and often should be commenced as early as possible, even in the face of mild, intermittent, persistent vomiting.
Feeding promotes healing of the GI mucosa and re-establishment of an effective mucosal barrier. Cats with severe vomiting should not be fed until the vomiting is better controlled.
Parenteral nutrition is indicated only for the most severely affected cases, and its use should not delay vigorous attempts to start enteral feeding.
Although rFeIFN is not approved by the FDA for this purpose and has not been proven effective in feline panleukopenia, it is approved and effective in the treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis.
Passive immunotherapy using immune serum from solidly immune cats, or using a commercial product raised in horses, is widely practiced in some countries.
There is limited evidence of treatment efficacy, however. Excellent inactivated and modified-live virus vaccines that provide solid, long-lasting immunity are available for prevention of feline panleukopenia.
Most authorities recommend that kittens receive two or three modified-live vaccine doses SC, 3—4 weeks apart. The first vaccination is usually given at 6—9 weeks of age.
The last dose of the initial vaccination series should not be administered before the kitten is 16 weeks old, to allow time for interfering maternal antibodies to wane so they do not inactivate the modified-live vaccine virus.
A followup vaccine dose at 26—52 weeks is a new recommendation, because some kittens have residual interfering antibodies, even at 16 weeks, sufficient to prevent successful immunization.
Exposure to virus should be avoided until 1 week after the initial vaccination series has been completed.
Adult cats should be revaccinated against FPV triennially or less frequently thereafter, although some manufacturers in some countries continue to recommend annual revaccination.
Titer testing kits are commercially available to detect when individual cats are immune to feline panleukopenia. These can be used as an alternative to repeated, scheduled vaccinations, for clients who prefer that option.
Feline panleukopenia has a noticeably worse prognosis than CPV enteritis. It is not certain that the care routinely provided to cats with panleukopenia is equally as intense as that provided to dogs with CPV enteritis and that any difference would be reflected in these various reports.
Studies have identified a variety of sometimes contradictory prognostic indicators in cats with feline panleukopenia. Several articles and publications provide guidance for rescuers and veterinarians for optimizing outcomes.
Treatment involves: . Feeding should be continued as long as possible. In a disease outbreak, unvaccinated kittens or adults can be given anti-FPV serum containing FPV antibodies injected subcutaneously or intraperitoneal.
This may provide protection for 2—4 weeks. Several studies have shown feline recombinant interferon-omega is effective in the treatment of parvoviral enteritis in dogs   and also inhibits replication of FPV in cell culture.
So far no data are available on its efficacy in FPV-infected cats. Cats typically die due to complications associated with sepsis, dehydration, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy DIC.
In , a retrospective study of infected cats showed that "leukocyte and thrombocyte counts as well as serum albumin and potassium concentrations at presentation are prognostic indicators in cats with panleukopenia, whereas vaccination status, age, clinical signs, and housing conditions are not.
Lifelong immunity is thought to follow recovery from disease, and a carrier state of the disease has never been identified.
Cats with suspected or diagnosed FPLV should be kept in isolation. This non-enveloped virus is very resistant to environmental conditions and many disinfectants, is highly contagious, and rapidly accumulates in the environment due to high shedding of virus from affected animals.
Recovered cats can still shed the virus for up to 6 weeks  and can carry it on their body for prolonged periods. The practice of recommending and giving vaccines on a fixed schedule with annual boosters has been widely discarded.
Current recommendations are based on the philosophy of vaccinating each cat no more frequently than necessary.
These recommendations take into account considerations for the efficacy and longevity of each specific vaccine; the exposure, risk, and need of different cat populations; and socioeconomic limitations.
The FPLV vaccination is considered a "core" essential for health vaccine and is recommended for all domestic cats. Several types and brands of commercial FPLV vaccines are available to induce acquired immunity.
These include:. Combination vaccines that protect against several common viruses, including FPLV, are also available. Kittens without maternally derived antibodies are especially vulnerable.
FPLV vaccination can start as early as 4 weeks of age for kittens at high risk but are usually started at 6 weeks, then given every 3 — 4 weeks until 16 weeks of age.
For cats older than 16 weeks, 2 doses, 3 to 4 weeks apart is generally recommended, followed by a 6-month to 1-year booster.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Feline Panleukopenia. Species of parvovirus. Retrieved 8 January Purification of protein from bovine-derived stromal cell supernatants produces a substantially homogeneous factor, free of extraneous materials.
The bovine protein is homologous with other mammalian species and is a homogeneous 50 kDa glycoprotein with an isoelectric point of 6.
The protein is prepared in a lyophilized 1 microgram dose. Reconstitution in sterile diluent produces a solution for subcutaneous injection.
As with HIV, the development of an effective vaccine against FIV is difficult because of the high number and variations of the virus strains.
For these reasons the vaccine is considered "non-core", and the decision to vaccinate should be made after discussion with a veterinarian and consideration of the risks vs.
FIV displays a similar structure to the primate and ungulate lentiviruses. The virion has a diameter from 80 to nanometers and is pleomorphic. The FIV virus genome is diploid.
It consists of two identical single-strands of RNA in each case about nucleotides existing in plus-strand orientation.
It has the typical genomic structure of retroviruses, including the gag , pol , and env genes.
The Pol polyprotein is translated by ribosomal frame-shifting, a feature shared with HIV. An additional short ORF termed orfA also known as orf2 precedes the env gene.
The function of OrfA in viral replication is unclear, however the orfA -encoded product may display many of the attributes of HIV-1 accessory gene products such as Vpr, Vpu or Nef.
The capsid protein derived from the polyprotein Gag is assembled into a viral core the protein shell of a virus and the matrix protein also derived from Gag forms a shell immediately inside of the lipid bilayer.
Both SU and TM glycoproteins are heavily glycosylated, a characteristic that scientists believe may mask the B-cell epitopes of the Env glycoprotein giving the virus resistance to the virus neutralizing antibodies.
Furthermore, the vectors can be used on dividing and non-dividing cells. FIV and feline leukemia virus FeLV are sometimes mistaken for one another though the viruses differ in many ways.
Although they are both in the same retroviral subfamily orthoretrovirinae , they are classified in different genera FeLV is a gamma-retrovirus and FIV is a lentivirus like HIV The two viruses are also quite different genetically, and their protein coats differ in size and composition.
Although many of the diseases caused by FeLV and FIV are similar, the specific ways in which they are caused also differs.
Also, while the feline leukemia virus may cause symptomatic illness in an infected cat, an FIV infected cat can remain completely asymptomatic its entire lifetime.
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Get our free widgets. Add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets. Dictionary apps. Browse our dictionary apps today and ensure you are never again lost for words.Incurable, fatal disease that affects cats. Connectors and Terminals. Rotten Tomatoes.